Two of the most famous diseases found on board ships were scurvy and typhus.

Scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C. This vitamin is found in fresh fruit and vegetables.

On long sea voyages, the supply of fruit and vegetables soon ran out, and after about thirty weeks the crew would start to show signs of scurvy.

Their gums would start to go spongy and bleed, and their teeth would fall out.

If the disease went on long enough, old wounds would open up and eventually the sailor would die.

The crew of the Mary Rose was lucky. Since the ship was rarely at sea for more than a month, they probably never got scurvy.

It was a real problem on the long voyages of discovery and trade to Asia, killing nearly the whole crew of some ships.

Typhus was a fever, spread by mites, lice and fleas. It was very common in crowded places like ships and prisons. It was even known as ship fever and goal fever.

Epidemics of typhus could destroy whole armies. One French army attacking the Italian city of Naples lost 30,000 men to the disease and had to retreat.