The pilot on the Mary Rose might have used a sort of chart called a "Portulan".

This showed the outline of the coast and the names of ports along the coast.

Compass roses were drawn on the chart to help the pilot fix his course.


The charts were made of goat or sheepskin. Can you think why a chart made of leather rather than paper would be used on board ships?

HINT: What happens to paper when it gets wet?


A fake map!


The pilot would have also had a book of written sailing instructions. This was usually called a "Rutter" in England.

This would have lists of landmarks, distances, tide tables and notes about rocks and places to anchor.

A number of book covers were found on the Mary Rose, but since the paper didn't survive very well, we don't know if one of them was a Rutter.